Country’s total land area of 30 million hectare (Mha), 9.67 Mha are classified as agricultural land; of which, about 4.94 Mha are arable. Of the total arable land, 3.2 Mha are irrigable. As of 2014, about 56% of the irrigable land has been developed to irrigated farmlands. In terms of coastline, Philippine coastline measures 11.29 km (Department of Agriculture (DA), 2015).
The agriculture sector has always been an important sector to Philippine economy. It is a significant contributor to the country’s GDP. Through the years, however, percentage share of agriculture in total GDP has declined. From 11.58% contribution to GDP in 2010, this has been reduced to 9.43% in 2015. As regards to employment, about 11.29 million Filipinos are engaged in agriculture and fishery production in 2015, representing about 30% of the country’s labor force from 2011 to 2015 (DA, 2015).
The agriculture sector is one of the sectors most vulnerable to climate change. For instance, from 2011 to 2015, the sector suffered much loss in terms of crop production and damage to infrastructure due to calamities hitting the Philippines valued at PhP 163 billion. This amount includes the income forgone due to production losses of 2.9 million tons of rice and 1.02 million tons of corn. The damage and losses brought about by the calamities suppressed the growth of the agriculture sector (DA, 2015).
Aside from typhoons, the agriculture sector is highly vulnerable to the effects of El Niño phenomenon. The most recent El Niño affected nine regions of the Philippines, five of which are found in Mindanao. The severe dry spell caused by El Nino resulted in damage and production losses in crops amounting to PhP 2.27 billion. In addition, about 57,111 metric tons of crops were lost including rice, corn, high value crops (banana and rubber) (Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 2015).
The agriculture sector’s emissions comprise about 29% (or 37 MtCO2e) of the Philippines’ total GHG emissions for the year 2000 (Philippines’ SNC). About 44% of the sector’s emissions come from rice cultivation while around 24% is emitted by agricultural soils. Assuming that BAU scenario continues, total emissions of the agriculture sector by 2030 can reach 50 MtCO2e. Thus, if mitigation strategies in the agriculture sector are put in place, it is certain that substantial amount of GHGs will be prevented from being released to the atmosphere.
In the NFSCC, the agriculture sector is not included among the key result areas for mitigation but included as a key result area for adaptation. This is perhaps due to the sector’s vulnerability to the adverse impacts of climate change as crops rely heavily on rainfall availability. While the agriculture sector is not included as an area for mitigation, it is worthwhile that mitigation actions be undertaken because as earlier mentioned, the sector’s share in the country’s total GHG emissions is substantial.
|The title of the policy or action||Policy or action name|
|Type of policy or action||The type of policy or action, such as those presented in Table 1, or other categories of policies or actions that may be more relevant|
|Description of specific interventions||The specific intervention(s) carried out as part of the policy or action|
|The status of the policy or action||The specific intervention(s) carried out as part of the policy or action|
|Date of implementation||The date the policy or action comes into effect (not the date that any supporting legislation is enacted)|
|Date of Completion (if applicable)||If applicable, the date the policy or action ceases, such as the date a tax is no longer levied or the end date of an incentive scheme with a limited duration (not the date that the policy/action no longer has an impact on GHG emissions)|
|Implementing entity or entities||Which entity or entities implement(s) the policy or action, including the role of various local, subnational, national, international, or any other entities|
|Objective(s) of the policy or action||The intended effects(s) or benefit(s) the policy or action intends to achieve (for example, the purpose stated in the legislation or regulation)|
|Geographic coverage||The jurisdiction or geographic area where the policy or action is implemented or enforced, which may be more limited than all the jurisdictions where the policy or action has an impact|
|Primary sectors, subsectors, and emission sources/sink categories targeted||Which sectors, subsectors, and source/sink categories are targeted, using sectors and subsectors from the most recent IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories or other sector classifications|
|Greenhouse gases targeted (if applicable)||"If applicable, which greenhouse gases the policy or action aims to control, which may be more limited than the set of greenhouse gases that the policy or action affects"|
|Other related policies or actions||Other policies or actions that may interact with the policy or action assessed.|
|Intended level of mitigation to be achieved and/or target level of other indicators (if applicable)||If relevant and available, the total emissions and removals from the sources and sinks targeted; the target amount of emissions to be reduced or removals to be enhanced as a result of the policy or action, both annually and cumulatively over the life of the policy or action (or by a stated date); and/or the target level of key indicators|
|Title of establishing legislation, regulations, or other founding documents||The name(s) of legislation1. or regulations authorizing or establishing the policy or action (or other founding documents if there is no legislative basis)|
|Measurement/Monitoring, reporting, and verification procedures||References to any measurement, reporting, and verification procedures associated with implementing the policy or action|
|Enforcement Mechanisms||Any enforcement or compliance procedures, such as penalties for noncompliance|
|Reference to relevant guidance documents||Information to allow practitioners and other interested parties to access any guidance documents related to the policy or action (for example, through websites)|
|The broader context/ significance of the policy or action||Broader context for understanding the policy or action, such as other policies or actions that the policy/action replaces, or the political context of the policy/action|
|Outline of non-GHG effects or co-benefits of the policy or action||Any anticipated benefits other than GHG mitigation, such as energy security, improved air quality, health benefits, or increased jobs, and any relevant target indicators|
|Other relevant information||Any other relevant information|