Forestry

Philippine forests are among the important sectors in the country as they provide numerous goods (timber, fuelwood, charcoal, non-timber products e g. honey, latex, rattan, bamboo, etc.) and environmental services (water, biodiversity, carbon, aesthetic beauty, oxygen) that are very essential to human existence, ecological stability and economic development. However, Philippine forests experienced a lot of pressures through time resulting to significant reduction in the coverage compared with the original forest cover that the Philippines had during the early 1700s. From the original area of 27 Mha (about 90% of the country’s total land area) in the year 1700, forests have been reduced to 21 57 

Mha by the year 1900. By 1950, forests cover a total of 14.73 Mha only (Lasco, Pulhin, & Visco, 2001). Further reduction in Philippine forests occurred when a large tract of forestland was awarded to timber licenses during the period between the 1970s and 1980. As of 2013, about 6.36 Mha of forests remain in forestland, around 1.87 Mha of which are closed canopy forests while 4.29 Mha and 0.20 Mha are open and mangrove forests, respectively (Philippine Forestry Statistics, 2014). Drivers of deforestation include logging or timber poaching, charcoal production, fuelwood, and non-timber forest products gathering, kaingin making, forest conversion to settlements, plantations, vegetable gardens, grazing, mining, road construction, hydropower dam and tourism facilities construction (Carandang, 2013). 

The sad state of the Philippine forests makes it more vulnerable to climate change. Based on the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report, forests in Asia will result to shifts in the phenologies, growth rates and distribution of plant species due to climate change. In 2007, Lasco et al studied the impact of climate change to biodiversity in the Philippines using the Holdridge Life Zone (an ecological classification based on three climatic factors, i.e. precipitation, heat (biotemperature) and humidity (potential evapotranspiration). Results of the study showed that among the forest types present in the Philippines, the dry forests are the most vulnerable as they will disappear with 25% increase in temperature. These types of forests are found in Northern Luzon, Negros, Cebu, Palawan, Basilan and General Santos. The results imply that with climate change, biodiversity of Philippine forests will decrease. 

In terms of the contribution of Philippine forests to the country’s GHG sequestration, the most recent estimate undertaken by USAID B-LEADERS with 2010 as the base year shows that the Philippine forest is still a huge carbon sink able to sequester 83.2 MtCO2e. This figure however shows a decreasing trend from the 105.11 MtCO2e sequestered by forests in year 2000 based on the SNC. Changes in biomass carbon stock (MtCO2e) sequester about 83.308 MtCO2e. Meanwhile, activities related to deforestation results in emissions of 0.075 MtCO2e while emissions from Forest Gain-Loss contribute 0.000422 MtCO2e.


MITIGATION ACTIONS


INFORMATIONEXPLANATIONAGRICULTURE POLICY/ACTION
The title of the policy or action                                          
Policy or action name                        
e.g. Forest Protection
Type of policy or actionThe type of policy or action, such as those presented in Table 1, or other categories of policies or actions that may be more relevante.g. Implementation using new technologies to reduce emissions
Description of specific interventions
The specific intervention(s) carried out as part of the policy or actione.g. ☒ Implemented ☐Planned
The status of the policy or actionThe specific intervention(s) carried out as part of the policy or actione.g. Reducing the loss of closed forest and open forest will avoid emissions of CO2 and non-CO2 gases from timber harvesting, fuelwood gathering, forest disturbance (e.g., fire), and deforestation. This mitigation option assumes that improved forest protection, management, and enforcement activities will be implemented.
Date of implementationThe date the policy or action comes into effect (not the date that any supporting legislation is enacted)e.g. to be determined
Date of Completion (if applicable)If applicable, the date the policy or action ceases, such as the date a tax is no longer levied or the end date of an incentive scheme with a limited duration (not the date that the policy/action no longer has an impact on GHG emissions)e.g. no end date
Implementing entity or entities                                  
Which entity or entities implement(s) the policy or action, including the role of various local, subnational, national, international, or any other entitiese.g. DENR-FMB (coordinating agency), DENR Regional/Field Offices (implementing entity)
Objective(s) of the policy or actionThe intended effects(s) or benefit(s) the policy or action intends to achieve (for example, the purpose stated in the legislation or regulation)e.g. Improved forest protection, management, and enforcement activities
Geographic coverageThe jurisdiction or geographic area where the policy or action is implemented or enforced, which may be more limited than all the jurisdictions where the policy or action has an impacte.g. National, sub-national
Primary sectors, subsectors, and emission sources/sink categories targetedWhich sectors, subsectors, and source/sink categories are targeted, using sectors and subsectors from the most recent IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories or other sector classificationse.g. Reforestation and Afforestation; sub-sectors.; forest land remaining forest land, CO2 sequestration
Greenhouse gases targeted (if applicable)"If applicable, which greenhouse gases the policy or action aims to control, which may be more limited than the set of greenhouse gases that the policy or action affects"e.g. CO2
Other related policies or actionsOther policies or actions that may interact with the policy or action assessed.Other policies or actions that may interact with the policy or action assessed.


OPTIONAL INFORMATION

INFORMATIONEXPLANATIONAGRICULTURE POLICY/ACTION
Intended level of mitigation to be achieved and/or target level of other indicators (if applicable)If relevant and available, the total emissions and removals from the sources and sinks targeted; the target amount of emissions to be reduced or removals to be enhanced as a result of the policy or action, both annually and cumulatively over the life of the policy or action (or by a stated date); and/or the target level of key indicatorse.g. Cumulative mitigation potential for the period (2000-2030) is 163.06 million tons CO2e
Title of establishing legislation, regulations, or other founding documents The name(s) of legislation1. or regulations authorizing or establishing the policy or action (or other founding documents if there is no legislative basis)e.g. Revised Forestry Code of the Philippines or PD 705 (Revising Presidential Decree No. 389, otherwise known as the Forestry Reform Code of the Philippines); EO No.231
Measurement/Monitoring, reporting, and verification proceduresReferences to any measurement, reporting, and verification procedures associated with implementing the policy or action
Enforcement Mechanisms Any enforcement or compliance procedures, such as penalties for noncompliancee.g. Enforcement done by

• DENR for Tenure holders in forestlands;
• DENR in NIPAS and in untenured forests;
• DENR for Holders of CADC/CADT in CADT/CADC areas
Reference to relevant guidance documents Information to allow practitioners and other interested parties to access any guidance documents related to the policy or action (for example, through websites)e.g. https://www.denr.gov.ph
The broader context/ significance of the policy or action Broader context for understanding the policy or action, such as other policies or actions that the policy/action replaces, or the political context of the policy/actione.g. As described above, the mitigation action promotes avoidance of emissions of CO2and non-CO2 gases from timber harvesting, fuelwood gathering, forest disturbance (e.g., fire), and deforestation;
Outline of non-GHG effects or co-benefits of the policy or action Any anticipated benefits other than GHG mitigation, such as energy security, improved air quality, health benefits, or increased jobs, and any relevant target indicatorse.g. Increased competitiveness, employment opportunities, improved air quality, health benefits, Ecosystem based adaptation (EbA), biodiversity conservation
Other relevant information Any other relevant information