Waste

Solid waste and waste water management remains to be a pertinent environmental problem in the Philippines. Rapid population growth, urbanization and consumption have resulted in a huge waste management challenge in the country. 

Solid waste generated per year is estimated at 13.48 million tons in 2010 and this is expected to increase to 16.63 million tons in 2020 (Environmental Management Bureau (EMB), Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR), December 2015). 

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) comes from residential, commercial, institutional, and industrial sources. 45% of MSW comes from the residential sources, which includes kitchen scraps, yard waste, paper and cardboards, glass bottles, plastic containers and sando bags, foils, soiled tissues and diapers, and special wastes such as containers of household cleaning agents, batteries and waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Commercial sources are second at 21% which include commercial establishments. Institutional sources which account for 12.1% of total MSW include government offices, education and medical institutions. Finally, the remaining 4.1% come from industrial and manufacturing sector. 

Improper solid waste management has implications both on climate change adaptation and mitigation. Poor waste management practices, which include open burning, dumping in creeks and water bodies, and non-segregation of waste have contributed to GHG emissions. Piling of biodegradable waste in landfills and operation of open & uncontrolled dumpsites leads to GHG emissions. 

Meanwhile, according to the Philippine Environment Monitor or PEM (World Bank, 2001) and the EMB 2001-2005 National Water Quality Status Report (EMB, 2006), there are three main sources of pollution in wastewater: domestic wastewater discharges or municipal waste, agricultural wastewater, and industrial wastewater. Below table shows the breakdown of sources based on the PEM and EMB reports. 

Furthermore, according to a study conducted by the United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) in 1999, approximately 2,000 cubic meters of solvent wastes, 22,000 tons of heavy metals, infectious wastes, biological sludge, lubricants, and intractable wastes, as well as 25 million cubic meter of acid/alkaline liquid wastes are improperly disposed of annually in the Metro Manila area alone (UNIDO, 1999).


MITIGATION ACTIONS

INFORMATIONEXPLANATIONAGRICULTURE POLICY/ACTION
The title of the policy or actionPolicy or action namee.g. Improved segregation of solid waste: composting
Type of policy or actionThe type of policy or action, such as those presented in Table 1, or other categories of policies or actions that may be more relevante.g. Implementation using new technologies to reduce emissions
Description of specific interventionsThe specific intervention(s) carried out as part of the policy or actione.g. Implementation RA No, 9003
The status of the policy or actionThe specific intervention(s) carried out as part of the policy or actione.g. ☒ Implemented ☐Planned
Date of implementationThe date the policy or action comes into effect (not the date that any supporting legislation is enacted)e.g. 2005
Date of Completion (if applicable)If applicable, the date the policy or action ceases, such as the date a tax is no longer levied or the end date of an incentive scheme with a limited duration (not the date that the policy/action no longer has an impact on GHG emissions)e.g. 2030
Implementing entity or entitiesWhich entity or entities implement(s) the policy or action, including the role of various local, subnational, national, international, or any other entitiese.g. SWMD, private investors, LGUs, others
Objective(s) of the policy or actionThe intended effects(s) or benefit(s) the policy or action intends to achieve (for example, the purpose stated in the legislation or regulation)e.g. Option includes increasing the percentage of biodegradable waste that is composted from 10% in 2015 to 50% in 2050. Increased composting results in additional biodegradable waste diversion from landfills, reducingCH4 emissions and overall disposal requirements;
Geographic coverageThe jurisdiction or geographic area where the policy or action is implemented or enforced, which may be more limited than all the jurisdictions where the policy or action has an impacte.g. National, sub-national
Primary sectors, subsectors, and emission sources/sink categories targetedWhich sectors, subsectors, and source/sink categories are targeted, using sectors and subsectors from the most recent IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories or other sector classificationse.g. Waste; sub-sectors.; Solid waste; source CH4 Emissions from solid waste disposal sites, CH4
Greenhouse gases targeted (if applicable)"If applicable, which greenhouse gases the policy or action aims to control, which may be more limited than the set of greenhouse gases that the policy or action affects"e.g. CH4, N2O
Other related policies or actionsOther policies or actions that may interact with the policy or action assessed.e.g. NREP, RPS


OPTIONAL INFORMATION

INFORMATIONEXPLANATIONAGRICULTURE POLICY/ACTION
Intended level of mitigation to be achieved and/or target level of other indicators (if applicable)If relevant and available, the total emissions and removals from the sources and sinks targeted; the target amount of emissions to be reduced or removals to be enhanced as a result of the policy or action, both annually and cumulatively over the life of the policy or action (or by a stated date); and/or the target level of key indicatorse.g. Cumulative mitigation potential for the period (2000-2030) is 10.56 million tons CO2e
Title of establishing legislation, regulations, or other founding documents The name(s) of legislation1. or regulations authorizing or establishing the policy or action (or other founding documents if there is no legislative basis)e.g. RA No. 9003
Measurement/Monitoring, reporting, and verification proceduresReferences to any measurement, reporting, and verification procedures associated with implementing the policy or action

Enforcement Mechanisms
Any enforcement or compliance procedures, such as penalties for noncompliance
e.g. Enforcement of RA. No. 9003
Reference to relevant guidance documents
Information to allow practitioners and other interested parties to access any guidance documents related to the policy or action (for example, through websites)
e.g. https://www.denr.gov.ph/
The broader context/ significance of the policy or action
Broader context for understanding the policy or action, such as other policies or actions that the policy/action replaces, or the political context of the policy/action
e.g. Ecological solid waste Management implemented towards climate change mitigation
Outline of non-GHG effects or co-benefits of the policy or action
Any anticipated benefits other than GHG mitigation, such as energy security, improved air quality, health benefits, or increased jobs, and any relevant target indicators
e.g. Increased competitiveness, improved air quality, health benefits
Other relevant information Any other relevant information